How are the stem cells administered?


Intrathecally (lumbar puncture)

Stem cells are introduced directly into the spinal fluid past the blood-brain barrier. This enables them to reach the spinal cord and brain.

During a lumbar puncture procedure, an experienced anesthesiologist injects the stem cells into the spinal canal through the lower vertebrae under local anesthesia. Lumbar puncture procedures are performed in a positive airflow room under sterile conditions. Once inside the spinal fluid, the stem cells are able to gain access to the spinal cord and brain.

Intravenously (IV)

Injection into a vein is the safest and simplest method for delivering the stem cells throughout the body for systemic conditions.

Intra-articularly (into the joint)

Stem cells are injected directly into the affected joint by a licensed physician. Intra-articular implantation does not usually require anesthesia.


Stem cells are injected directly into the muscle. Intramuscular injections do not require anesthesia.